Pioneer Valley Apiaries uses ‘sustainable beekeeping’ practices and proven genetics from northern-bred queens to produce docile, healthy, productive honeybees that—when coupled with proper care—thrive in our New England region.

From Rob of Pioneer Valley Apiaries (Jan. 5, 2022):

Hi folks,

I’ve decided to forgo selling overwintered nucleus colonies for the 2022 beekeeping season, and so I will not be taking orders this year. Despite the anomalously good overwintering success I had last year, I also had enough hiccups to keep me from increasing colony numbers. Growth is something that—at this early stage in the business—is necessary for the operation’s long-term viability. On top of this, I don’t want to assume my bees will overwinter as well this year as they did last year. So, I will be holding on to the bees in order to get back on track. It’s not an easy decision as it will certainly yield some short-term pain, but it’s ultimately the best one.

That said, if you are eager to get your hands on some New England-raised and overwintered nucleus colonies for 2022, I highly recommend that you reach out to Troy Hall of Hall Apiaries in Plainfield, NH. He keeps bees in the “Upper Valley” of New Hampshire and Vermont—near Lebanon and White River Junction. He and I have similar approaches to beekeeping, except that he’s historically been treatment-free, but has treated following the serious and widespread winter losses most beekeepers saw in 2021. Although not currently reflected on his website as of this writing, it is—in my view—not at all a bad thing, and is something he’s otherwise very open about. If you reach out to him, he’s perfectly happy to talk about it and his beekeeping experiences. A good beekeeper prioritizes the health of their bees, and Troy is a very good beekeeper. You can visit his website here, email him at, or give him a call at (603) 298-7209.

Also, I am toying with the idea of selling non-overwintered nucleus colonies mid-season in 2022. These would be nucleus colonies made in 2022 with brand-new 2022 queens, and would probably be ready around end of May. Pricing would be less than that of my overwintered nucs—likely around $200. If you have any interest in buying a non-overwintered nucleus colony from me, please reach out and let me know on the contact page.

Thanks, happy new year, and happy beekeeping in 2022!

Nucleus colony orders are not being taken at this time, but feel free to read on for information.

A nucleus colony (or “nuc”) is essentially a downsized hive. Where a hive typically centers around honey production, nucs center around production of bees and brood. Michael Palmer at French Hill Apiaries in Vermont often refers to nucs as “brood factories.” 

A nuc is also a perfect way to sell an already established and productive honey bee colony due to its small, portable size.

Like a good hive, a nuc contains a laying queen, a healthy population of worker bees, and frames of drawn comb. The comb contains a combination of honey stores, open brood (larvae), capped brood (pupae), and empty space in which the queen can continue to lay. Where as each box in a hive contains eight to ten frames, each box in a nuc typically contains four or five. When sold or bought, a nuc ususally consists of one box with four or five frames.

Once purchased, most people transfer their nuc (the frames and bees thereon) into eight or ten frame hive equipment to start their own beehive.

Nucs available for purchase from Pioneer Valley Apiaries consist of five deep-size frames and are overwintered in the Pioneer Valley! This means the queen you purchase with your nuc was raised (locally!) the year before and successfully survived a local winter with her colony.

Why is this good? Getting bees to survive up to and through the winter is a beekeeper’s biggest challenge. 

The Bee Informed Project’s 2018-2019 annual survey shows that beekeepers nationwide lost an estimated 37.7% of their colonies that winter—the highest ever reported by the survey. Backyard beekeepers fared particularly poorly, losing 39.8% of their colonies. Nationwide winter losses in 2019-2020 were better at 22.2%—with backyard beekeepers losing 32.8%—but losses suffered the summer prior were the highest ever reported at 32%. For the entire 2019-2020 survey period, beekeepers lost 43.7% of their colonies—the second highest reported by the survey. 

By buying a honeybee colony with an overwintered queen, you get extra assurance that—with the proper care—her colony has what it takes to survive another local beekeeping season and winter.

Are the nucs available for purchase from Pioneer Valley Apiaries treatment-free?
No. My bees’ health is my biggest priority. So for me, that means treating my bees for varroa mites. The statistics from the Bee Informed Project survey mentioned above demonstrate why I treat and why you should seriously consider it, too.

Among the many factors contributing to honey bee declines, varroa mites are arguably the most serious. Varroa mites are parasites that feed on honey bees, spreading a lot of disease from bee to bee in the process. The vast majority of colonies that fail to overwinter contain large quantities of mite fecesa sure sign that a hive perished from disease linked to varroa mites. It is even common for hives that appear extremely healthy during strong spring and summer nectar flows to quickly crash and die when nectar flows taper off—well before the winterdue to high varroa mite loads. It is a sad and confusing outcome for many beekeepers.

The bottom line is varroa mites are deadly to honeybees. My biggest priority as a beekeeper is to keep and sell healthy bees, and I urge every customer who buys my bees to take steps to maintain that health as best they can. In fact, I believe firmly that anyone who keeps bees should use some method of varroa mite control, whether through chemical treatments, organic treatments, or biotechnical interventions such as drone comb removal. Failing to check and control for varroa mites not only seriously jeopardizes the health of your colony, but also the health of others nearby. Only commercial beekeepers with enough bees and genetics on hand to experiment with raising truly varroa-resistant bees are justified in not using any sort of varroa control in their colonies. Even then, they very likely take some precaution to ensure their colonies do not pose a risk to others nearby.

What variety of honey bee does Pioneer Valley Apiaries raise?
My bees are mixed-breed. I do not focus on raising any specific variety of honey bee.  Instead, I select for specific traits like docility, honey production, overwintering weight, good brood pattern, and general health. With a wider gene pool to select from, the chance of successfully raising bees with a ‘winning combination’ of traits becomes greateror so the theory goesso there is little incentive to limit myself to any specific breed.

Genetically, my stock is largely the same as Michael Palmer’s, which are made to withstand the long and harsh winters of the northern Champlain Valley. The difference is that I have raised and overwintered my stock locally in the Pioneer Valley for years.  And because they are not bred with any variety in mind, the bees you purchase could be any color and look like any variety.

Nucleus colonies are generally expected to be available for pick up in April or May. Unanticipated circumstances (like weather) may force pick up dates into June, but it is highly unlikely. When your nucleus colony (or colonies) is nearly ready for pick up, I will contact you to coordinate a pick up date and time. Pick up times will be limited to hours either early in the morning or later in the evening when temperatures are cooler. This is to ensure your nuc does not overheat and suffocate. When I contact you, I will also provide you with a pick up location in the Northampton/Hadley/Amherst area.

The nuc will be contained in a secure box at pick up, although you may have a bee or two escape the box during transport. If you plan to transport your nuc back home inside the cabin of your vehicle, you can bring a mesh laundry bag to place the nuc into so that any escaped bees are contained and do not fly around you while you are driving. You can also dress warmly for the drive and keep the cabin as cool as possible to keep the bees inactive.

If you plan to transfer your nuc into hive equipment, make sure you gather and prepare the equipment prior to nuc pick up. This includes a bottom board, hive bodies and honey supers, frames with foundation, an inner cover, and an outer cover. If you are not able to transfer your nuc into hive equipment soon, you may risk having the nuc swarm, losing the overwintered queen and half the bees in the process. Your bees will not patiently wait until you have the equipment and time to provide the space they need. Get them transferred before they even consider swarming. Notable places to purchase online include MannlakeDadantBetterbee, and Humble Abodes.

Nucleus Colony Order and Purchase Information

 $232 per nucleus colony if paying online.

– $225 per nucleus colony if mailing a check. The check must be received within ten business days of your order.

– No refunds. In the unlikely event that I am unable to fulfill your order, you will be entitled to a full refund for any nucleus colonies I am unable to provide.